Is 307b vegan?

In this brief guide, we will answer the query, “Is 307b vegan?” and will discuss what are food preservatives and their types?

Is 307b vegan?

Yes, 307b is vegan. 307b is vegan because it is an extract from vegetable oils high in tocopherols (vitamin E), such as sunflower oil, also called antioxidant (INS 307b). With a faint scent, it comes in the shape of dark brown to dark-red, sticky oil that is easy to spread. It’s classified as a food additive because of it.

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How to use 307b?

·         Fats may be protected against rancidity by using INS 307b Antioxidant as an antioxidant.

·         Cheeses, soups, and vegetable oils and fats may all benefit from the use of this ingredient.

Tocopherol is widely used as an antioxidant, preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Being a form of vitamin E, it can be used as supplementation. In the gut, it enhances the activity of vitamin A by preventing oxidation in the intestinal tract. Vitamin E, at the cellular level, also appears to protect cellular and subcellular membranes from deterioration by scavenging free radicals that contain oxygen (1).

Preservatives

Food preservatives have become an indispensable part of the food industry today. In simple terms, a food preservative is any substance that hinders food deterioration caused by microbes, enzymes, or any other chemical reaction (3). Antioxidants and antimicrobials are the two primary categories of food preservatives. Antioxidants are substances that slow or prevent the oxidation of food. Food deterioration and harmful bacteria may be prevented by the use of antimicrobial agents.

Antioxidants

An oxygen atom may be added to or removed from food items during the process of oxidation. Autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (those with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms of a hydrocarbon chain) and enzyme-catalyzed oxidation are the two main kinds of oxidation that contribute to food degradation (1).

Unsaturated fatty acids undergo autoxidation via a process involving carbon-carbon double bonds and atomic oxygen (O2). These chemicals, known as free radicals, are extremely reactive and create the off-flavors and odors that are associated with oxidative rancidity in foods (1).

To reduce the rate of autoxidation, antioxidants that react with free radicals (also known as free radical scavengers) might be used. In addition to tocopherols (vitamin E derived), these antioxidants include the synthetic substances butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (1).

The ingestion of oxidized lipids, which contain free-radicals, can compromise health in a number of ways, thus leading to oxidation reactions in the body. The oxidation of membrane lipids alters membrane integrity, promotes red blood cell fragility and membrane leakage. The oxidation of proteins results in loss of enzyme catalytic activity and/or regulation (1).

Many dietary components may also be oxidized by certain enzymes. Oxidation processes may result in changes in the food’s quality. When fruits and vegetables like apples, bananas, and potatoes are chopped or bruised, enzymes called hydrolases accelerate the oxidation of specific molecules (e.g., the amino acid tyrosine). Melanin, the dark pigment formed as a result of these oxidation events known as “enzymatic browning,” is the end product. Enzymatic browning results from the oxidation of polyphenols to quinones, catalyzed by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase also known as polyphenoloxidase, tyrosinase, o-diphenol oxidase, and catechol oxidase, and subsequent further reaction and polymerization of the quinones (1). Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant that inhibits enzyme-catalyzed oxidation by binding free oxygen, whereas citric acid and sulfites inactivate the enzymes.

Antimicrobials

Antimicrobials are often employed in conjunction with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to prevent the development of spoilage and pathogens. The earliest known antibacterial agent is probably sodium chloride (NaCl), most commonly known as table salt. To combat bacteria in low-pH goods, organic acids are utilized.

The activity of preservatives is due to the undissociated form of the molecule and thus pH is a major factor in their effectiveness. Increasing the acidity of foods is a method of controlling the growth of microorganisms. The survival and proliferation of microorganisms depend in part upon the pH of the food. Foods with a pH below 4.6 are considered acidic, and many bacteria will not proliferate in acidic foods. Acidulants are used to reduce the pH and thus provide a means of controlling microorganism growth (2). 

These include acetic, benzoic, propionic, and sorbic acids. Clostridium botulinum is prevented in cured beef products by the use of nitrates and nitrites (e.g., ham and bacon). To prevent spoilage germs from growing in dried fruits, fruit juices, and wines, sulfur dioxide, and sulfites are utilized. Microorganisms create nisin and natamycin as preservatives. Antibacterial natamycin and mold-killing antifungal nisin are also available.

Avoiding food additives

Many people believe that food additives are harmful and should be avoided. On the other hand, the food industry and authorities argue that additives are necessary for a variety of reasons, including the prevention of food illness and the extension of the shelf life of food.

You’ll consume more additives if you eat a lot of highly processed meals. If you want to prevent them, eat mostly fresh and less processed foods like canned tomatoes or frozen veggies.

Most artificial food preservatives impart negative health effects at high doses. For instance, in vitro studies have revealed that sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate exhibit genotoxic effects. However, this issue can be dealt with by adhering to the acceptable daily intake values of food additives. Interestingly, despite showing adverse effects at toxic levels, some artificial food preservatives show favorable health effects at nontoxic levels (3). Vitamin E, on the other hand, is relatively nontoxic. However, large intakes of vitamin E might interfere with absorption of Vitamin A and vitamin K. Doses necessary to elicit toxicity far exceed those necessary for nutritional sufficiency. Reported toxic effects in adults have included increased bleeding tendency, impaired immune function, and impairment of leukocyte function (1).

But it’s impossible to eliminate all additives since even pre-packaged bread is likely to contain at least one. Adding a few dietary additives to your diet isn’t likely to do any damage to most individuals, either. There are several reasons for this, including the fact that the fast-food sector has begun to reduce its use of food chemicals that may be dangerous.

Controversial additives

Key types of additives in concern include:

·         Colors (code values in the 100 range) can improve the appearance of food by introducing or removing color. Tartrazine (Yellow No. 5), for example, has long been linked with hypersensitivity in certain individuals. In addition, tartrazine was thought to provoke bronchospasms in asthmatics and aspirin-intolerant persons (1).

·         Protects food against microorganisms that cause degradation (200 range). Sodium benzoate and other benzoic acid derivatives can produce respiratory symptoms and urticaria (1).

·         Oxidative degradation, such as when fats and oils become rancid, may be slowed or prevented by antioxidants (300 range). Although antioxidants are deemed to confer numerous health benefits to the humans, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) have shown negative health effects (3).

·         Some of the most popular artificial sweeteners are sorbitol (420), which is one of the most concentrated sweeteners available, as well as high-intensity sweeteners such as xylitol (900). However, large amounts of sorbitol can cause flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal distension. In some long-term rat studies an induction of a higher incidence of bladder cancer was found among rats consuming saccharin. Mutagenic effects are also reported for this sweetener (1). 

·         Flavor enhancers (mostly in the 600 range), substances used to enhance the flavor and/or scent of food. There has been much criticism on the health effects of glutamate—a much consumed flavor enhancer. However, mixed results have been published and there is no evidence to prove that glutamate possesses negative health effects, according to a recent report (3).

Additional additives

·         Emulsifiers, which assist keep oil and water mixes from segregating (primarily in the 400 range), are widely used (in mayonnaise, for example). This category of food additives also consist of natural and synthetic compounds. In fact, lecithin that assists in emulsification and stabilization for most food products is mostly extracted from soy bean, and thus it is a natural additive. However, numerous studies are being conducted evaluating the positive effects of synthetic lecithin (3).

·         Securing an equal dispersion of ingredients in ice cream is made possible by stabilizers (usually in the 400 range).  

Conclusion

In this brief guide, we answered the query, “Is 307b vegan?” and discussed what are food preservatives and their types?

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References

  1. Branen, A. Larry, et al., eds. Food additives. CRC Press, 2001. 
  2. Igoe, Robert S. Dictionary of food ingredients. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011. 
  3. Karunaratne, Desiree Nedra, and Geethi Kaushalya Pamunuwa. Introductory Chapter: Introduction to Food Additives. Food Additives. IntechOpen, 2017.
  4. Aksoz, Elif, et al. Vitamin E (α‐, β+ γ‐and δ‐tocopherol) levels in plant oils. Flav Fragr J, 2020, 35, 504-510.