How does an electric oven work?

In this brief guide, we are going to answer the question “how does an electric oven work?” with an in-depth analysis of how an electric oven works. Moreover, we are going to discuss the temperature problems in an electric oven and different types of ovens.  

So without much ado let’s dive in and figure out more about it.

How does an electric oven work?

The inner workings of an electric oven begin with the temperature being set. The heating elements are activated once the temperature is set. 

The heating elements are linked to the control box through a copper wire, which allows you to check the temperature and make adjustments. The electrical wires that make the elements are the way the heat is transmitted to them; once the wire heats up, the heating elements begin to cook the food. Afterward, the heat travels to the metal, assisting in the even cooking of the elements.

What are the basic components of an electric oven?

To begin, let’s look at the basic components of an electric oven. 

The first thing you need to know about electric ovens is that they contain two heating elements, one at the top and one at the bottom. 

These heating elements are housed in a steel box and are controlled by the thermostat and selector switch on the oven. Metal wires and sheets are used to make the heating elements.

What is the role of dials and electric control in an electric oven?

In an electric oven, the dials and electric control play a critical role. 

The dials and electric controls accomplish the same functions, but they differ in one way: baking and broiling. In electric ovens, baking is always done on the bottom heating element, while broiling is always done on the top. 

In older models with dials, you can choose the type of cooking you want, but you don’t have much control over the dial when it comes to broiling; they are simply meant to cook food from top to bottom.

Temperature problems in an electric oven 

  1. One of the main temperature problems of an electric oven is that the control thermostat switch won’t close.
  1. Furthermore, the temperature issue is caused by the heating element failing to heat effectively.
  1. Another temperature issue of the electric oven is that if a conducting wire is severed or broken, electricity cannot be carried to the heating element. 

What are the different types of ovens?

There are basically four types of oven conventional, fan-assisted, fan with electric thermostat, and digital electronic with PCB and NTC sensors.

The conventional oven 

The conventional oven is the most fundamental oven available on the market. A selection switch, a thermostat, a cooling fan, a bake element at the bottom of the box, and a broil element at the top of the oven chamber for broiling comprise the conventional oven’s circuitry.

When the selector switch is set to bake, the bottom element of the conventional oven, which is regulated by the thermostat, will come on to warm up the oven. 

The top element of a conventional oven may work hand in hand with the bottom element, but only in short bursts, to even out the heat throughout the oven chamber and cook more evenly.

The broil setting on the switch activates only the top broil element, which is likewise regulated by the thermostat. 

Some ovens may include a dual top element and maybe two broil option settings, one for the outer element only and the other for both of the dual top elements.

Fan-assisted oven 

The fan-assisted oven has two heating elements, one on top and one on the bottom of the oven. 

Broiling is done on the top element. On the broil setting, only the broil element and no fan are ever active. The bottom element is used to bake. On the bake mode, all three elements are activated at precise fixed intervals, and each in turn, however, the oven fan is never turned on. Both are controlled by the thermostat.

The oven also features a cooling fan for the top cooler. In addition, a fan with another element is added to the back wall to circulate the heat from all three components, resulting in a much more uniform distribution of heat throughout the oven.

Electronic oven with PCB

The electronic oven with PC board consists of an oven with a PC board/timer assembly with relays on the board, each of which controls one of the heater elements, fans, or other components based on the signal received from the NTC sensor, which replaces the temperature-sensitive capillary tube in other oven types. 

Depending on which cycle it is on, the electronic timer circuit dictates what is turned on and off. In terms of cooking and baking, the oven has the same layout and performs similarly to any other fan-assisted oven.

You can read the difference between microwaves and conventional ovens here.


In this brief guide, we answered the question “how does an electric oven work?” with an in-depth analysis of how an electric oven works. Moreover, we discussed the temperature problems in an electric oven and different types of ovens.  


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