Does black pepper go bad?
In this brief article, we will discuss the question “Does black pepper go bad?” and how to maintain its quality.
Does black pepper go bad?
Yes, black pepper does go bad. According to the USDA, black pepper can be stored for up to two years from the date of purchase and still be fresh and of good quality if kept in proper conditions (1).
Black pepper is a dried spice derived from the Piper nigrum plant’s berries, and it is one of the most used spices in the world (2). Although it has a relatively long shelf life, black pepper can lose its flavor and aroma over time and become less potent, if not properly stored. The shelf life of black pepper varies according to factors such as spice quality and storage conditions.
What factors can affect the shelf life of black pepper?
The storage conditions of black pepper are one of the most important factors influencing its longevity. To prevent deterioration, keep black pepper in a cool, dry, and dark place. Light and heat can quickly degrade the flavor and aroma of black pepper. Thereby, keep black pepper in an airtight container away from direct sunlight and other heat sources.
Another important factor influencing the longevity of black pepper is moisture content. The moisture content of black pepper ranges between 8.7 and 14% (3). If the moisture content is too high, the black pepper can become moldy or spoiled, while if it is too low, the pepper can become brittle and lose its flavor. As a result, it is critical to store black pepper in a cool, dry place and in airtight containers to prevent moisture loss or gain.
Air exposure can also shorten the life of black pepper. Air can cause oxidation of some components present in black pepper, such as monoterpenes and phenolic acids (2), resulting in a loss of flavor and aroma (4).
The quality of the pepper itself is another factor that can affect the longevity of black pepper. High-quality black peppers, with higher amounts of piperine and essential oil, have a longer shelf life and are more flavorful and aromatic than lower-quality peppers (2). When purchasing black pepper, choose high-quality, fresh pepper to ensure that it lasts longer.
How to store black pepper to maximize its shelf life?
Proper storage methods are critical for retaining the flavor and aroma of black pepper. Here are some pointers on how to properly store black pepper:
Use airtight container
Black pepper should be stored in an airtight container to protect it from air that can cause it to lose flavor and aroma quickly, and also to protect it from moisture to avoid undesirable microorganism growth (5).
Store in a cool and dry place
Black pepper should be stored in a cool place, away from any heat sources, because heat can induce the oxidation of the flavor components, causing it to lose flavor and aroma quickly.
Avoid storing black pepper in the refrigerator because the moisture can cause microorganism growth. Also, the flavor could be compromised by other aromas present in the refrigerator. Therefore, storing black pepper in the refrigerator is not advised.
Other FAQs about Pepper which you may be interested in.
How to tell if your black pepper has gone bad?
When black pepper goes bad, it loses its flavor and aroma, and it can even become moldy or rancid. Here are some signs that a black pepper has gone bad:
Smelling black pepper is one of the simplest ways to tell if it has gone bad. Fresh black pepper has a strong, pungent aroma (2). If your black pepper smells off or has no aroma, it’s probably gone bad.
Another way to tell if black pepper has gone bad is to give it a taste. Fresh black pepper tastes sharp and slightly bitter (2), whereas stale pepper tastes flat and bland. If your black pepper tastes off, or if it has no flavor at all, it has most likely gone bad.
Fresh black pepper should be slightly crunchy and coarse in texture. If your black pepper is soft, mushy, or clumpy, it could have absorbed moisture and it has probably gone bad.
Is it safe to consume expired black pepper?
No, it is not safe to consume expired black pepper. It is dangerous to use expired black pepper because it may contain mold or other harmful bacteria.
Although the amount of black pepper generally used is very small, some harmful toxins produced by microorganisms need extremely low levels to make someone sick (6). If you’re not sure whether your black pepper has gone bad, it’s best to be safe and throw it out.
Expired black pepper can also have an impact on the flavor and aroma of your dishes, so use fresh black pepper whenever possible.
In this brief article, we have discussed the question Does Black Pepper go Bad and How to protect it.
1. UDSA. Ask USDA [Internet]. Available from: https://ask.usda.gov/s/article/How-long-can-you-keep-dairy-products-like-yogurt-milk-and-cheese-in-the-refrigerator
2. Ravindran PN, Kallupurackal JA. 6 – Black pepper. In: Peter KVBT-H of H and S (Second E, editor. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition [Internet]. Woodhead Publishing; 2012. p. 86–115. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090393500062
3. Pruthi JS, of Agricultural Research. Publications IC, Division I. Major Spices of India: Crop Management and Post-harvest Technology [Internet]. Publications and Information Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research; 1993. Available from: https://books.google.com.br/books?id=-hRIAAAAYAAJ
4. Meghwal M, Goswami TK. Effect of grinding methods and packaging materials on fenugreek and black pepper powder quality and quantity under normal storage conditions. Int J Agric Biol Eng. 2014;7(4):106–13.
5. Seenappa M, Kempton AG. Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production on black pepper. Mycopathologia [Internet]. 1980;70(3):135–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00443023
6. Moss MO. Mycotoxin review-1. aspergillus and penicillium. Mycologist. 2002;16(3):116–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0269915X02003014