Can you eat bread that has been frozen for a year?

In this paper, I will answer the question: “Can you eat bread that has been frozen for a year?” and explain how freezing can help to retain the quality of bread.

Can you eat bread that has been frozen for a year?

Yes, you can eat bread that has been frozen for a year. However, it has a tendency to dry out and lose flavor. To prevent bread from freezer-burn, double wrap it. 

FAccording to the US Department of Agriculture, frozen bread can last up to 6 months in the freezer. While freezing will not kill all harmful bacteria, it will prevent them from developing. Homemade bread, because they don’t contain preservatives, has a shorter shelf life, of 3 months (1).

What is the shelf-life of bread?

Depending on the product nature, various properties or quality indices must be experimentally followed as a function of time in order to evaluate the degradation of the product quality in terms of the sensory, the microbiological, and the physicochemical properties. In order to fully account for all the degradation criteria, a well-planned experimental investigation and analysis must be adopted (2).

If kept in a pantry, a loaf of store-bought bread (whether white, multi-grain, or whole-grain) will typically last five to seven days at most.

Even if the bread is still edible after a week, it will inevitably go stale.

The homemade loaf, on the other hand, has a shorter shelf life, lasting four to five days. Craft bread spoils and stales far faster than commercially manufactured bread.

Naturally, customers seek out ways to extend the shelf life of bread. Refrigeration, as an alternative, can be a very effective solution.

The whole loaf or leftovers can easily be kept fresh for a few more days in the refrigerator if packed tightly.

Some people believe that putting bread in the fridge causes it to degrade faster because it becomes too wet, and this is accurate. However, this will only happen if we leave it out uncovered, as bread absorbs moisture quickly. This is why a hermetically sealed tank or tight wrapping is required.

Store-bought bread can last for 7-12 days if it’s refrigerated while homemade bread can be kept for 5-8 days (1).

What causes bread to spoil?

You should inspect your bread to see if it is fresh or spoiled.

The following are some signs that the bread is no longer fresh:

  1. Molds:

Molds are microorganisms that thrive under heat and moisture. Molds are not harmful to health, but their appearance is unappealing and indicates that the food on which they grow has spoiled. Mold spoilage is common in the bakery industry and in many cases, mold growth determines the product shelf-life of both high-moisture and intermediate-moisture baked goods. Baking destroys most molds. However, during cooling and packaging, recontamination can occur and cause growth to take place; its evidence can be seen under the wrapper during storage (2).

Mold begins to grow on the outside of the loaf and progresses to the inside. Molds in bread usually take many days to grow.

Mold in bread can occur from the air or from anything that the bread comes into touch with. Mold spores can be found in the air and on the surfaces of all objects to varying degrees. 

The unclean environment encourages them to multiply. Mold growth is aided by moisture in the air and on the bread, warmth, and increasing sugar levels in the bread. Oxygen is a key element in allowing mold to grow rapidly on the product or to have a butter-based product filling or topping rapidly turn rancid. Molds tend to thrive in warm temperatures and moist surfaces in an oxygen atmosphere (2).

If you find mold, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) suggests discarding the entire loaf.

  1. Adverse odor:

The smell of alcohol can sometimes be detected in the loaf of bread. When the yeast settles in the bread and converts the carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and alcohol, a distinct odor emerges.

  1. Unpleasant taste:

If you stored the bread in a humid environment or you exposed it to a hot environment, even if only for a short time, it could compromise its preservation, giving it a “strange taste.” Taste variation is an indicator of spoiled food, even if you can’t detect mold with your naked eye.

  1. Hard texture:

Bread that hasn’t been properly packed and stored can turn stale or dry. Stale bread can still be eaten as long as it doesn’t have mold on it, but it won’t taste as delicious as fresh bread. Staling is linked with changes in the crystalline state of the starch present, which contribute to progressive firming of the product crumb. The changes in starch crystalline structure during post-baking storage are the ones we commonly refer to as `starch retrogradation’. During baking the starch present in bread doughs and cake batters undergoes a transformation known as `gelatinization’. This is a complex process but essentially involves a transition from an ordered (crystalline) to a disordered state. In the unbaked starch it is the amylopectin which contains ordered regions and is embedded in the non-crystalline matrix of the amylose, the other main constituent of wheat starch. The disordered starch state created during baking gradually begins to re-order, or `retrograde’, with storage time and contributes to the firming which we typically observe in bread crumbs. If we reheat old bread we can once again disorder the starch structure and create a soft bread crumb. However, when we subsequently store the same bread we will notice that the rate at which the crumb forms has now increased (3).

How to freeze bread?

  • Short-term storage:

If you’re dealing with store-bought bread, keep it in its original packaging and place it in the freezer. If it’s homemade bread, simply wrap it tightly in plastic wrap or foil before storing it for a few weeks (make sure it’s completely cool before wrapping).

  • Long-term storage:

If you’re planning to keep the bread for a longer period of time, an extra layer of wrap will be required. Wrap the bread in plastic foil or freezer paper. Freeze for up to six months after labeling.

Your bread will have an unpleasant freezer burn flavor if you keep it frozen for a longer time.

Before you freeze your bread, slice it up. You won’t have to thaw and refreeze the whole loaf each time you want a piece or two.

How to thaw bread?

If you want to eat frozen bread, there’s no need to thaw it first: simply place a slice in the toaster or the oven. You may need to adjust the dial to a slightly higher temperature than when toasting fresh bread.

Alternatively, simply place the bread in the refrigerator the night before you expect to use it. By the next morning, it should have thawed and be ready to use.


In this essay, I answered the question: “Can you eat bread that has been frozen for a year?”. I also gave you simple instructions on how to store it and thaw it for eventual use.

Feel free to contact me for any additional request on this subject.


  1. FSIS Food Keeper Data. United States Department of Agriculture.
  2. Galić, K., D. Ćurić, and D. Gabrić. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods—A review. Crit rev food sci nutr, 2009, 49, 405-426.
  3. Cauvain, S. P. Improving the control of staling in frozen bakery products. Trends Food Sci Technol, 1998, 9, 56-61.
  4. Freezing and Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture. 2013.

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