At what temperature does vegetable oil boil?

In this brief guide, we are going to answer the question “At what temperature does vegetable oil boil” with an in-depth analysis of at what temperature does vegetable oil boil. Moreover, we are going to discuss how vegetable oil is made as well as some advantages of using vegetable oil.

Vegetable oil is the oil that is taken from different kinds of organic products, seeds, grains, and nuts (all considered vegetables for this reason). 

The European Union is the world leader in production of olive oil (around 2.1 million tonnes or 68% of world production). Estimation of by-product generation is based on an analysis of the Andalusian olive oil industry, which represents around 50% of the total EU production (1).

The most well-known oils are produced using canola, coconut, corn, cottonseed, olive, palm, palm portion, nut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower. Vegetable oil is utilized to add flavor, help with texture, and cook food. 

So if you eat something cooked in vegetable oil and are wondering about how one can prepare vegetable oil or at what temperature does this oil boil and are in search of an answer you need not worry as we are going to answer all your questions.

So without much ado, let’s dive in and figure out more about it. 

At what temperatures does vegetable oil boil?

The temperature at which vegetable oil starts to boil depends on the type of vegetable oil. At 760 mmHg, lauric acid has a boiling point of 298.9°C compared with 351.5°C for palmitic acid and 376.1°C for stearic acid. Unsaturation reduces the boiling point to a very small extent (2). For soybean cooking oils, the boiling point was measured as being between 178 and 196 degrees Celsius or between 352 and 384 degrees(3), which indicates that the boiling point of the oil depends strongly on its composition. The boiling point should not be confused with the smoking point, because the smoking point is lower and is the temperature at which the fat in the oil starts to break and emit smoke. The smoke point is the temperature at which a fat or oil produces a continuous wisp of smoke. This provides a useful indicator of its suitability for frying and 200°C is often specified as the minimum by regulations (2).

The boiling point of a fluid is where the temperature at which the fluid will change into a gas. The explanation that various fluids boil at various temperatures is a result of the chemical bonds that hold them together. The specific temperatures will likewise rely upon how pure the oil is. However, this value is measured experimentally and different experiments lead to different results, depending on the conditions used. The raw material (plant, cultivar of the plant, extraction and refining processes) plays an important role in the results, because boiling and smoke points are directly related to the composition of fatty acids of the oil (2).

The boiling point of soybean cooking oils is around 190  degrees Celsius or 374  degrees Fahrenheit (3). You can contrast this with the boiling point of water, which is 100°C or 212°F. So when I state that oil has a higher boiling point than water, I am saying that the compound bonds that hold oil together are stronger than the ones holding water together. It needs more heat to break them apart. 

The fundamental explanation behind this is that the oil particles are a lot greater, so everyone has more surface to adhere to different ones. The temperature at which oil begins to break down into fatty acids and visibly produce smoke is known as a smoke point. The smoke point of canola oil is 428 degrees Fahrenheit which is equal to 220 degrees Celsius, Soybean has a smoke point of 453 F (234 C), Corn has a smoke point of 446 F (230 C), Peanut has a smoke point of 440 F (227 C) (2). 

How vegetable oil is made?

A few oils, for example, olive oil, are cold-squeezed which is an extremely basic cycle; the olives are squeezed, the oil comes out, is filtered, and prepared to utilize. Most of the oils, nonetheless, experience a more unpredictable process (2). 

To start with, the vegetables are squashed to get the oil. The squashed blend is then warmed and blended in with hexane, a synthetic that assists with separating the excess oil. The solids are eliminated and utilized for creature (animal) feed, and the hexane is refined from crude oil. 

A few vegetables are just squashed, while others are smoothed, toasted, and really at that time can the oil be taken out with hexane. The unrefined oil goes through a refining cycle to eliminate the impurities which influence the tone, smell, and taste of the oil. The refining cycle comprises three stages: refining, bleaching, and deodorizing (RBD).

What is done in refining?

The oil is treated with phosphoric acid, which makes the gums separate from the oil so they can be purified. The oil is then treated with caustic soda, which reacts with the undesirable free unsaturated fats transforming them into soap; the soap is isolated from the oil.

The refining processes remove undesirable materials (phospholipids, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, free acids, colour and pigments, oxidized materials, flavour components, trace metals and sulfur compounds) but may also remove valuable minor components which are antioxidants and vitamins such as carotenoids and tocopherols (2).

What is done in bleaching?

The oil is warmed and blended in with filter aids, for example, diatomaceous earth and dirt. These filters help to assimilate the coloring and different impurities in the oil. The oil is then purified to eliminate the filter aids along with all the impurities. Bleaching is a process designed not only to remove the pigment (chlorophyll) but, more importantly, to break down peroxides (primary oxidation products) into lower molecular weight carbonyl compounds that can be subsequently removed by deodorization (2).

What is done in deodorizing?

The oil is warmed under a vacuum to about 480° Fahrenheit. Steam rises through the oil, eliminating the excess free unsaturated fats and impurities. After this cycle, the oil is completely refined and prepared to utilize. During the deodorization process many desirable reactions are taking place, but there are also some undesirable reactions such as lipid hydrolysis, polymerization and isomerization. Therefore, the deodorization temperature must be carefully controlled to achieve optimum quality (2).

Advantages of vegetable oil

Let us discuss some advantages of vegetable oil. Here are few advantages of vegetable oil

  1. Improves heart health using soybean oil as it lowers the cholesterol level. This is because it contains omega 6 and omega 3.
  2. It adds to the flavor of your feast, especially olive oil (2).
  3. It relieves menopausal symptoms like hot flushes of the women who consumed rice bran oil daily (5).
  4. Vegetable oils are a source of fat dissolvable nutrients like A (palm, canola), E (sunflower, corn), and K (sunflower) (4). So if you are pregnant or experience the ill effects of nutrient lack, taking vegetable oils for your daily diet may give various medical advantages.

Conclusion

In this brief guide, we have answered the question “At what temperature does vegetable oil boil” with an in-depth analysis of at what temperature does vegetable oil boil. Moreover, we discussed how vegetable oil is made as well as some advantages of using vegetable oil.

Citations

  1. Berbel, Julio, and Alejandro Posadillo. Review and analysis of alternatives for the valorisation of agro-industrial olive oil by-products. Sustainability, 2018, 10, 237. 
  2. Gunstone, Frank, ed. Vegetable oils in food technology: composition, properties and uses. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.  
  3. Hasan, M. S., et al. Study on physicochemical properties of edible oils available in Bangladeshi local market. Arch Curr Res Int, 2016, 6, 1-6.
  4. Rathi, Devi-Nair, et al. Fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid analysis in cooking oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography. Food Anal Method, 2017, 10, 1087-1096.
  5. Nagendra Prasad, M. N., et al. Health benefits of rice bran-a review. J Nutr Food Sci, 2011, 1, 1-7.

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